Note: Mandarin is the written language for all Chinese dialects; includes Putonghua, the standard spoken language of China.

Language Family: Isolated branch of Sino-Tibetan family of languages.
Location: Mainland China, Taiwan
Major dialects: Mandarin - Major dialect (70% of population); Yue - Spoken in province of Guangdong includes Cantonese dialect; Min - Spoken in Taiwan, Fuijian provinces; Hakka - Spoken in southeastern China; Wu - Spoken in Shanhai, Suzhou, Wenzhou, the lower Yangzi River's major cities and areas.

Chinese Keyboards, Pinyin

Yahoo! Search - Free Language Sites
Because sites come and go on the Internet, the best resource for language fonts may be this Yahoo! Search "find it yourself" link.
Pinyin - Wikipedia Article with downloads
Detailed article on Pinyin includes History, Usage, Rules for English pronunciation, Entering toned pinyin on a computer, etc.
Chinese Radical Keyboard for Google
Use your mouse for typing on this online Chinese keyboard.


Flag of People's Republic of China; more on PRC flag and symbols
PRC Anthem (words); Anthem (music); Anthem (video)
Map of China and Quick Facts; More Serious Maps
UCLA Language Profile - Mandarin
Ethnologue: Languages of China
Chinese Images; Tour China (video)
Chinese Holidays
Famous Chinese; More; More
Chinese Cuisine; More; More
Chinese Music; More; More
Chinese Cinema; More; More

Megasites Search - Preset for Chinese
The Google search engine has been preset for you to search the Internet using the Chinese language. Also ideal for target language lexical and contextual searches and other language-oriented uses. Requires Chinese fonts.

Search Google in Chinese
Use your mouse for typing Chinese on this online Google search template.

Search Engine Colossus - China
Links to primary English, Mandarin Chinese and other languages search engines and gateways.

China WWW Virtual Library: Internet Guide for Chinese Studies
A massive, in-depth educational resource maintained by the Institute of Chinese Studies, University of Heidelberg, Germany. Excellent!

Library of Congress Portals to the World - China
Created and maintained by the LoC Area Studies Directorate.

BUBL LINK Catalogue is largest Internet portal in U. K.: Selected Internet resources covering all academic subject areas.

DMOZ Open Directory - China, Chinese Version
Useful resources page, includes links to Interactive Portals, Music and Art, Country/Regions, etc.

Best Chinese Websites
Produced by Professor Jim Becker at the University of Northern Iowa, this resource site is very rich and very diverse and great for students and teachers at all levels.

Google Directory - China
Google Regional Directory preset for China.

Yahoo Regional Countries Links - China
Excellent Yahoo search engine links for everything from Arts and Humanities to Travel and more.

China Internet Resources
Resource page with links to to History, Philosophy, Art, Literature, etc

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Professional Organizations, Online Journals and Library Consortia

Association for Asian Studies
"The Association for Asian Studies (AAS)—the largest society of its kind, with approximately 7,000 members worldwide—is a scholarly, non-political, non-profit professional association open to all persons interested in Asia. The China and Inner Asia Council (SAC), one of four regional councils operating within AAS. Also provides links to Chinese Studies - Programs and Centers in North American, Europe and Asia.

Chinese Language Teachers Association
"The Chinese Language Teachers Association (CLTA) is a professional organization devoted exclusively to the study of Chinese language, culture and pedagogy. " See CLTA Links for list of other Chinese Language and Culture Organizations; also links to online Journal of Chinese Language Teachers Association.

European Association for Chinese Studies
"The purpose of the Association is to promote and foster, by every possible means, all scholarly activities related to Chinese studies in Europe. The Association shall not engage in any political activity."

International Association of Chinese Linguists
The IACL is a professional organization devoted to the promotion of scientific research on Chinese languages and their dialects.

National Council of Organizations of Less Commonly Taught Language
"The CouncilNet website is the hub of CouncilNet, the World Wide Web based network for organizations representing the less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) in the United States."

Linguistic Bibliography Online
"The Linguistic Bibliography covers publications from all branches of linguistics, both theoretical and descriptive, from all geographical areas. The emphasis is on non-Indo-European languages and lesser known Indo-European languages, including endangered and extinct languages. "

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Universities, Programs and Centers of Study

STARTALK - Chinese Programs
STARTALK is the newest of the component programs of the National Security Language Initiative (NSLI) announced by President Bush in January of 2006. The initiative seeks to expand and improve the teaching and learning of strategically important world languages that are not now widely taught in the US.

Confucius Institute Online
"Confucius Institute (simplified Chinese: 孔子学院; traditional Chinese: 孔子學院; pinyin: kǒngzǐ xuéyuàn) is a non-profit public institute which aims at promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese teaching internationally through affiliated Confucius Institutes. Its headquarters is in Beijing and is under the The Office of Chinese Language Council International or Hanban." In addition to Institute homepage above, see websites for Confucius Institute programs at Michigan State University, Texas A&M, University of Maryland, UCLA, for more information. Also "SCOLA and Confucius Institute have formed a partnership making SCOLA the first broadcasting network to feature educational content from Confucius Institute." For more information, see SCOLA or use your JLU account to connect directly to SCOLA and Confucius Channel.

U.S. Institutions Teaching Chinese
From Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) at the University of Minnesota. Select Chinese and search LCTL list of US schools and institutions of higher education offering instruction in the Chinese language.

LinguaVista - Chinese
"The LinguaVista website enables language learners to find high-level language programs in the US and abroad."

The Language Flagship - Chinese
Links to university, public school, and partner programs.

Chinese Flagship, The Ohio State University
"The Ohio State University Chinese Flagship Program provides American students with the language and cultural expertise necessary for a China-related career."

Chinese Flagship Center, Brigham Young University
"The Brigham Young University Chinese Flagship Center prepares students for careers related to China. Our aim is to provide the linguistic and cultural skills necessary to work successfully in a professional Chinese environment. "

Chinese Studies - Programs and Centers

From the Association for Asian Studies, links to Chinese Studies, Programs and Centers in North American, Europe and Asia. (Also noted above.)

Chinese Language Study- Institutions

Another list of U.S. and foreign schools with Chinese language programs.

Colleges and Universities - People's Republic of China, Taiwan
Links to major institutions of higher learning in China.

Colleges and Universities - China, Taiwan
More links to major institutions of higher learning in China and Taiwan.

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Language Materials

Wikipedia - Chinese Language; Standard Mandarin; Chinese Grammar; Spoken Chinese
Links to the main articles on Chinese in Wikipedia, the Chinese Grammar link following from Standard Mandarin, Spoken Chinese focusing on dialects and variations.

MERLOT Learning Resources - Chinese
MERLOT is a leading edge, user-centered, searchable collection of peer reviewed and selected higher education, online learning materials, catalogued by registered members and a set of faculty development support services. Chinese language and culture resources for students and teachers - with 155 entries! - worth exploring. Note also Merlot collections for Business Chinese and Chinese Culture.

Unilang-wiki - Chinese Grammar
Basic grammar topics for Mandarin discussed in untraditional way for western languages.

Omniglot - Chinese
Basic introduction to Chinese script and language.

Standard Chinese: A Modular Approach
Foreign Service Institute (FSI) course designed to give a practical command of spoken Standard Chinese. Nine situational modules form the core of the course. Each core module consists of tapes, a student textbook, and a workbook. In addition to the core modules, there is a resource module and eight optional modules.

News in Simplified Chinese
A project of the National Capital Language Resource Center: "The News in Simplified Chinese is posted to the web twice monthly and delivers a survey of the previous two weeks' news in simplified standard Chinese. Listeners of Voice of America's "Special English" broadcasts will recognize the slightly slower rate of speech and textual redundancy which characterize these webcasts.

Learning Chinese Online
Content-rich online course with links developed and maintained by Dr. Tianwei Xie, California State University at Long Beach.

Chinese Language Information Page
Links to various Chinese Language resources. Be sure to check What's New link.

Chinese Character of the Day
Learn one Chinese character every day. Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced levels.

Chinese Character of the Day
Learn one Chinese character every day. Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced levels.

4 Words - Chinese
Daily lessons for the ambitious learner. Combine with above site and you can grow at five words a day!

Mandarin Chinese
"One in a three-part series of free Mandarin Chinese online courses. This is a vocabulary-centered language learning program. Each lesson centers around a vocabulary unit that is presented in the context of several example sentences, then expanded upon by a short dialogue. All of the material on this site is available for free download. Listen to the lessons on your MP3 player, and use our PDF transcripts just as you would a regular textbook."

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Confucius Institute Online (also listed above)
"Confucius Institute is a non-profit public institute which aims at promoting Chinese language and culture and supporting local Chinese teaching internationally through affiliated Confucius Institutes. Its headquarters is in Beijing and is under the The Office of Chinese Language Council International or Hanban." In addition to Institute homepage link above, see websites for Confucius Institute programs at Michigan State University, Texas A&M, University of Maryland, UCLA. Also "SCOLA and Confucius Institute have formed a partnership making SCOLA the first broadcasting network to feature educational content from Confucius Institute." For more information, see SCOLA or use your JLU account to connect directly to SCOLA and Confucius Channel.

Modern Chinese
Course is written entirely in Chinese. Includes pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar and characters.

UCLA Language Materials Project: Teaching Materials for Less Commonly Taught Languages - Chinese
Outstanding site for both online and published resources - not just for teachers. Select "Chinese," "All Materials," and "All Levels" for full display.

GLOSS/LingNet - Chinese
Product of Defense Language Institute: "All of the GLOSS lessons are categorized into one of three primary competencies: lexical (vocabulary), structure (grammar), and discourse (devices that bind texts, conversations, etc.). Additionally, all lessons address the socio-cultural competence through teacher notes and the like."

"LangNet is a language learning support system with interactive materials designed for those who want to practice and maintain their target language reading and listening skills." Currently, only available to government agencies and select academic institutions. Or link throught your JLU account.

Chinese Resources from Martindale's Language and Translation Center
An excellent resource site for online Chinese dictionaries, language courses, working aids, and more. - Chinese
Large list of links to Chinese language and country/culture sites. Not all functional and not all freeshare.

Wikipedia - Chinese Version
Goal of Chinese Wikipedia was to reach 100,000 articles by end of 2008.

Search Wikipedia in Chinese
Use your mouse for typing Chinese on this online Chinese Wikipedia search template.

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Online Dictionaries

NCIKU Online Dictionary
Testimonial from expert: "NCIKU is by far, the best online dictionary - and dictionary for that matter! - that I’ve ever used. It has great handwriting recognition, can input pinyin or hanzi, and there are many example sentences provided with searched words. Furthermore, there is a computerized voice to read the Chinese and they will often times provide clarification of grammar points. Very useful and I know many students who prefer this to Wenlin or any other electronic dictionaries." More from same expert: "The Chinese Internet is loaded with great sources that students can use to find the meanings of Chinese characters. Here are more resources for dictionaries on the Chinese Internet: •             汉典    政府部门常用英汉辞汇    计算机科学技术名词    成语词典    量语词典   简单词典   • 国语辞典 • 在线新华字典牛津英汉双解辞典 - Chinese
Large dictionary portal offers general and specialized online dictionaries

Best Chinese Online Dictionaries
Hyperlink to any one of eleven online Chinese dictionaries that are rated by users.

Multilingual Online Chinese Dictionary
One of the better portals for online Chinese dictionaries. Scroll past ads to bottom of page for list!

Google Dictionary
Select either Chinese (Traditional)< >English or Chinese (Simplified) < > English.

Google - Translate Text or Webpage
Enter webpage URL or text, then select "from>to" languages.

Google - Translated Search
How does this work? 1. Search for "Harbin tours" from English to Chinese. 2. We translate your query into Chinese (Traditional or Simplified) and find Chinese web page results. 3. Finally, we translate the Chinese web page results back into English for you. (See example search for "Beijing Apartment.")

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Online Media and News

Kidon Media - Link: Peoples Republic of China; Taiwan

Links to Chinese and English online newspapers, magazines, TV and radio stations from this giant news. Includes links to portal.

Peoples Republic of China - Media

Chinese and English language media links from Political website. - People's Republic of China; Taiwan

Huge selection of online national newspapers.

Voice of America News - Chinese

Voice of America news broadcasting in target language. Also note: VOA’s Chinese Podcasts, Webcasts and RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds which allow you to receive news and information in the categories you choose. .

BBC news broadcasts in Chinese.

Deutsche Welle - Chinese News Service
"Deutsche Welle is Germany’s international broadcaster: online, on-screen and over the air. It provides a European perspective to audiences around the world and promotes intercultural dialogue."

RadioStationWorld - China
About: "RadioStationWorld is an informational directory dealing with radio and television broadcasters worldwide." Site allows you to bookmark favorite radio stations for listening.

Google News - China
Breaking news in English; also has Text and Image Version, and Archives.

Yahoo! News - China
Latest news in English from a variety of news sources.

SCOLA - Global Foreign Language Portal
SCOLA ia a leader in foreign language television news broadcasts. Schedule of broadcasts, insta-classes in some languages, and other useful information. One channel. the Confucius Institute, is dedicated to Chinese Mandarin. NOTE: If you have a .gov or .mil email account, you can register for a Joint Language University (JLU) account that will allow you to log into SCOLA and some 5 other password protected language sites: go JLU.

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Online Videos - Language and Culture

Basic Mandarin Chinese with Sophie- Lesson 1: Tones
Very pleasant and enthusiastic online mentor who explains concepts clearly -- and in English! -- and then patiently presents them to learners in Chinese. A total of 10 Lessons. Link to Lesson 2: Numbers 1-10 here, then use index to go to additional lessons.

"Crazy Chinese Guy Writing Calligraphy"
Amazing! Makes one truly appreciate the art of calligraphy. And you don't even need to know Chinese!

Chinese Movies on YouTube
Search for "Chinese movie" on YouTube yields numerous clips and trailers.

Chinese Documentaries on YouTube
Search for "Chinese documentary" on YouTube produced interesting selection.

Chinese Music Videos on YouTube
Search for "Chinese Music Video" on YouTube produced wide variety of choices from traditional to rock.

Chinese Commercials on YouTube
Search for "Chinese commercial" on YouTube yielded interesting results.
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History, Culture, Religion

Wikipedia - History of China (prior to 1949); History of the Peoples Republic of China
Detailed online histories with numerous hyperlinks to important events, personalities and places.

Chinese Cultural Studies: Concise Political History of China
Very detailed history, compiled from Compton's Living Encyclopedia on America Online.

History of China
Based on Army Area Handbook and Library of Congress country study, includes History Timeline.

WWW-Virtual Library: History: China
An extensive internet resource guide, related to "sister site" WWW-VL Asian Studies:China noted above in Mega Sites.

Wikipedia - Culture of China (prior to 1949); Culture of the People's Republic of China
Everything from Art and Architecture to Rugs and Sports. Lots of external links.

Chinese Culture and Tradition
From, a recommended fun site for culture explorers with focus on "Five Necessities of Chinese Culture:" food, clothing, housing, transportation, and education - but then there's a lot more!.

Palace Museum (English Version) (Chinese Version)
"The online Palace Museum offers you a visual feast of 5,000 years of traditional Chinese art, with a rich concentration of architecture and artifacts from the Ming and Qing imperial courts."

National Museum of China (in Chinese)
Virtual tours of National Museum; Ancient Collection; Modern Collection; and more.

Wikipedia - Chinese Philosophy
From Book of Changes to Confucianism to Taoism and beyond. WIth links to main articles on most.

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Article on life and teachings of Confucius (551-479 BCE) -- thinker, political figure, educator, and founder of
the Ru School of Chinese thought. Also see Confucius Quotations

Wikipedia - Religion in China
Not just Chinese religions but also other organized religions on China.

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Government and Politics

Governments on the WWW - People's Republic of China
Includes links to National Institutions and Government sites including President and most Ministries; Embassies in foreign countries, Political Parties, etc.

Political Resources on the Net - People's Republic of China
Listings of political sites available on the Internet sorted by country, with links to Parties, Organizations, Governments, Media and more from all around the world.

Foreign and International Law - China

From the Washburn University School of Law Library, links to country sites for Constitutional Law, Government and Politics, Law and Legislation, Legislative Bodies, etc.

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Country Studies

Wikipedia - China
Excellent online encyclopedia article covering geography, history, military, culture, etc. with links to other main articles and Internet resources

China - A Country Study
Exceptionally detailed presentation from the Library of Congress. Includes sections on: Geography, Society, Economy, Government and Politics, Very Detailed History and Historical Development, Contemporary Trends, etc. Also from LoC, see Country Profile: China

CIA World Factbook - China
Good resource site for information on Geography, People, Government, Economy, Communications, Transportation, Military, and Transnational Issues.

BBC News Country Profiles - China
Full profiles provide an instant guide to history, politics and economic background of countries; also biographic sketches of leaders, essay on media, and historic timelines. They also include audio and video clips from the BBC archives.

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Country Analyses

U.S. Department of State Background Notes - China
Background Notes are updated/revised as they are received from regional bureaus and are added to the database of the Department of State web site. Categories include: Geography, People, History, Government, Political Conditions, Economy, Defense, Foreign Relations, U.S. Relations, and Travel/Business.

International Monetary Fund - China
Latest developments in Peace and Security, Economic Development, Humanitarian Aid/Refugees, Environment/Shelter, Human Rights, Women/Children/Population, Health/Poverty/Food Security, Culture/Education.

The World Bank Group - China
WBG Activities in China, with additional related links.

The World Trade Organization - China (Member since 2001)
"The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world?s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business."

Energy Information Administration Country Analysis Briefs - China
"The Energy Information Administration (EIA), created by Congress in 1977, the a statistical agency of the U.S. Department of Energy. We provide policy-independent data, forecasts, and analysis to promote sound policy making efficient markets and public understanding regarding energy and its interaction with the economy and environment."

World Health Organization - China
About WHO" "The World Health Organization, the United Nations specialized agency for health, was established on 7 April 1948. WHO's objective, as set out in its Constitution, is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health is defined in WHO's Constitution as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."

International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies - China
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is the world's largest humanitarian organization, with 178 member National Societies.

Amnesty International - China
Amnesty International is a champion defender of human rights worldwide. Familiarity with a given country's human rights issues can provide a unique insight into many other aspects of its culture and politics.

Human Rights Watch - China
Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

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Travel Guides

Lonely Planet Destinations - China

The people at the offbeat Lonely Planet website are not your typical travel guides -- they're very bright and know what they're talking about. Their goal is not to "sell the country" to travelers. Instead, they tell it how it is. Typical headings include: "Warnings" (in case travel is not recommended - the "why's"); Facts for the Traveler, When to Go, Events, Money and Costs, Attractions, Off the Beaten Track, Activities, History, Culture, Environment, Getting There and Away, Getting Around, and Further Reading and Related Weblinks.

Wikitravel - China

Wikitravel - by the people, for the people. Wikitravel is a project to create a free, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide.

Yahoo Travel Guide - China
Includes links to history, basics, transportation, dining, shopping and climate.

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