Language Family: New Indo-Aryan group of Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European
Pakistan (official language), India, Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, Mauritius, South Africa, Afghanistan, and Thailand
Related Languages:
Closely related to Hindi but uses Arabic script.


Urdu Language Fonts

Yahoo! Search - Free Language Sites

Because sites come and go on the Internet, the best resource for language fonts may be this Yahoo! Search "find it yourself" link.

Urdu Keyboard

Use your mouse for typing on this online Urdu keyboard.




Google.com Search - Preset for Urdu

The Google search engine has been preset for you to search the Internet using the Urdu language. Also ideal for target language lexical and contextual searches and other language-oriented uses. Requires Urdu fonts.

Search Engine Colossus - Pakistan

Links to primary English, Urdu, Punjabi and other languages search engines and gateways.

Resources for the Study of South and Southeast Asian Languages and Cultures

In English, from Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen; perhaps the most extensive online resource site.

BUBL LINK - Pakistan BUBL LINK Catalogue is largest Internet portal in U.K.: Selected Internet resources covering all academic subject areas

.DMOZ Open Directory - Pakistan

Extensive resources page, includes links to Interactive Portals, Music and Art, Country/Regions, etc.

Google Directory - Pakistan

Google Regional Directory preset for Pakistan.

Library of Congress Portals to the World - Pakistan

Created and maintained by the LoC Area Studies Directorate

.Yahoo Regional Countries Links - Pakistan

Excellent Yahoo search engine links for everything from Arts and Humanities to Travel and more.

Pakistan Virtual Library

A part of the WWW Virtual Library system, this website provides numerous links to language and country related sites.


Professional Organizations, Online Journals and Library Consortia

Association for Asian Studies

"The Association for Asian Studies (AAS)—the largest society of its kind, with approximately 7,000 members worldwide—is a scholarly, non-political, non-profit professional association open to all persons interested in Asia." The South Asia Council (SAC), one of four regional coucil operating within AAS, provides a list of US and European institutions offering programs of study in Urdu and other South Asian languages.

American Institute of Pakistan Studies

Mission: to encourage and support research on issues relevant to Pakistan and the promotion of scholarly exchange between the United States and Pakistan. To fulfill this mission, AIPS provides research fellowships to American researchers, administers lectureships, and sponsors academic conferences.

British Association for South Asian Studies

"The British Association for South Asian Studies (BASAS) is the largest UK academic association for the study of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and the South Asian Diaspora."

European Association for South Asian Studies

"The European Association for South Asian Studies (EASAS) is a professional, non-profit organisation of scholars engaged in research and teaching concerning South Asia with regard to all periods and fields of study. The objectives of EASAS are to support and promote South Asian Studies in all countries of Europe."

VYAKARAN - ListServe

The first electronic discussion group dedicated solely to South Asian linguistics. Above link takes you to VYAKARAN archives page which also has sign-up information.

South Asia Language Review

The South Asian Language Review (SALR) is a biannual journal published in January and June w.e.f. January 1991. It publishes papers on theoretical as well as applied aspects of language and linguistics and book reviews.

Savifa: Virtual Library South Asia

Heidelberg University's Savifa: Virtual Library South Asia: "the information gateway for South Asia Studies, which offers you a comprehensive access to professionally selected and annotated internet resources as well as other scientific information."

E-Journals for South Asian Studies and Indology

Heidelberg University's Savifa: "offers in cooperation with the E-Journal Library (EZB) a comfortable point of entry to more than 200 e-journals. The coloured buttons indicate whether you have access to the full text."

Annual of Urdu Studies

All the articles of the Internet edition of the Annual of Urdu Studies (AUS) are available in the PDF format. Individuals may view and download them for personal use with the Adobe Acrobat Reader.

South and Southeast Asian Studies - South Asia Resource Access on the Internet (SARAI)

Division of Columbia University Libaries provides links to Libraries, Reference Tools, eJournal, eNews, eBooks, and more. Also lists Conferences, Exhibits & Events on South Asia and more.

Digital South Asia Library

Rich academic online reference site from University of Chicago; inlcudes links to Bibliographies, References, Maps, Images, Books and Journals, etc

.National Council of Organizations of Less Commonly Taught Language

"The CouncilNet website is the hub of CouncilNet, the World Wide Web based network for organizations representing the less commonly taught languages (LCTLs) in the United States.

"Linguistic Bibliography Online

"The Linguistic Bibliography covers publications from all branches of linguistics, both theoretical and descriptive, from all geographical areas. The emphasis is on non-Indo-European languages and lesser known Indo-European languages, including endangered and extinct languages.

"South Asian Language Teachers Association (SALTA)

"South Asian Teachers Association (SALTA) is a professional organization of language educators at university and college level and is a registered body in the state of New Jersey. The mission of this Association is to encourage a more effective cooperation among instructors and educators of South Asian languages, linguistics, and literatures in institutions of higher studies, particularly colleges and universities in North America."


Universities, Programs and Centers of Study

STARTALK - Urdu Programs

STARTALK is the newest of the component programs of the National Security Language Initiative (NSLI) announced by President Bush in January of 2006. The initiative seeks to expand and improve the teaching and learning of strategically important world languages that are not now widely taught in the US.

From Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) at the University of Minnesota. Select Urdu and search LCTL list of US schools and institutions of higher education offering instruction in the Urdui language.

LinguaVista - Urdu

"The LinguaVista website enables language learners to find high-level language programs in the US and abroad."

Hindi-Urdu Flagship, University of Texas at Austin

"An undergraduate program at the University of Texas at Austin designed for students who wish to achieve advanced professional proficiency in Hindi and Urdu while majoring in a wide variety of programs, including Business, Communications, Engineering, and Liberal Arts."

South Asian Studies, University of Pennsylvania

"The Department of South Asia Studies (SAST) at the University of Pennsylvania, founded in 1948, is the oldest South Asia area studies program in the nation. The Department is home for all faculty teaching South Asian languages and cultures, ancient and modern, with many dual appointments of faculty in other university departments.

"American Institute of Pakistan Studies

Homepage of the American Institute of Pakistan Studies, University of Wisconsin - Madison.

Pakistani Colleges and Universities

Links to major institutions of higher learning in Pakistan.

Colleges and Universities - Pakistan

More links to major institutions of higher learning in Pakistan.


Language Materials

Urdu - Wikipedia

Along with this general article on the Urdu language, Wikipedia provides separate, main articles on Hindi-Urdu Phonology, Hindustani Orthography, Urdu Alphabet and Hindi-Urdu Grammar.

Urdu Writing System

Basic introduction to Urdu alphabet with collections of links to audio files and language related websites.

Scripts of all of Asia - Brahmi Scripts

Script comparison charts by Eden Glshani.

Naim, C.M. Introductory Urdu - Volume One; Volume 2

Pdf versions of Naim's 1999 two volume "Introductory Urdu" from the South Asia Language & Area Center, University of Chicago. Also see: C.M. Naim,

Readings in Urdu: Prose and PoetryMir in Cyberspace: Resources for Teaching and Learning Urdui

Part of Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs) resources links from Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA) at University of Minnesota.

Hindi/Urdu Conversation Lessons on the Web at Syracuse University

These pages developed with support from the South Asia Center at Syracuse University. Materials for first and second year courses.

Ukindia Learn to Read Urdu

Download Urdu Lessons 1-20 zip (500k) Introduction to alphabet, Urdu sounds online, etc.

UCLA Language Materials Project: Teaching Materials for Less Commonly Taught Languages - Urdu

Outstanding site for both online and published resources - not just for teachers. Select "Urdu," "All Materials," and "All Levels" for full display.

DLIFLC - GLOSS/LingNet - Urdu

Product of Defense Language Institute: "All of the GLOSS lessons are categorized into one of three primary competencies: lexical (vocabulary), structure (grammar), and discourse (devices that bind texts, conversations, etc.). Additionally, all lessons address the socio-cultural competence through teacher notes and the like."

Includes: Cultural Orientation, 15 common phrases, basic language guide and more.

LangNet - on Joint Language University

"LangNet is a language learning support system with interactive materials designed for those who want to practice and maintain their target language reading and listening skills." Currently, only available to military, government agencies and select academic institutions. Best accessed through Joint Language University portal (above).

Joint Language University - Urdu Resources

In addition to LangNet (above), JLU also provides one login/password access to Transparent Language materials like Urdu Language Virtual Flash Cards, Urdu Talker, Urdu Rapid Rote Audio, and Urdu Immersion Environments; WordChamp online language lessons; and SCOLA television broadcasts.


Urdu Language Resources

Table of Contents includes: Fonts and Software, Language Tutorials and Teaching Aids, History and Relationship to other Languages, The Language, Literature and Songs, Trivia, Other Pages of Urdu Links.

Urdu Resources from Martindale's Language and Translation Center

An excellent resource site for online Urdu dictionaries, language courses, working aids, and more

LanguagesOnTheWeb.com - Urdu

Large list of links to Urdu language and country/culture sites. Not all functional and not all freeshare.

I Love Languages.com - Urdu

A few links to language and cultural websites.

Urdu Language Learning Resources

Urdui resource site from Columbia University.

Wikipedia - Urdu Version

Goal of Urdu Wikipedia has more than 1,000 articles and growing.


Online Dictionaries

Large dictionary portal offers general and specialized online dictionaries

Urdu and Urdu-English Dictionaries

Extensive list of dictionaries and online links from MultilingualBooks.com, including the two searchable dictionaries noted below.


Searchable online English-Urdu-English dictionary.


Searchable online English-Urdu-English dictionary; site has additional language resources like glossary of Muslim names.

Digital Dictionaries of South Asia

From University of Chicago, links to several South Asian languages online dictionaries, including several Hindi and Urdu digital dictionaries.


Links to Urdu and English online newspapers, magazines, TV and radio stations from this giant news portal.

OnlineNewspapers.com - Pakistan

Huge selection of online national newspapers - with some regional.

Voice of America - Urdu

Voice of America news broadcasting in target language. Also note: VOA’s Urdu Webcasts and RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds which allow you to receive news and information in the categories you choose. .

BBC - Urdu.com

BBC news broadcasts in Urdu.

Deutsche Welle - Urdu News Service

"Deutsche Welle is Germany’s international broadcaster: online, on-screen and over the air. It provides a European perspective to audiences around the world and promotes intercultural dialogue."

TvRadioWorld - Pakistan

About: "TvRadioWorld is an informational directory dealing with radio and television broadcasters worldwide." Site allows you to bookmark favorite radio stations for listening.

Yahoo! News - Pakistan

Latest news in English from a variety of news sources.

SCOLA ia a leader in foreign language television news broadcasts. Schedule of broadcasts, insta-classes in some languages, and other useful information.


"The Most Comprehensive Reference on the Political History of Pakistan.

"Wikipedia - History of Pakistan

Detailed online history with numerous hyperlinks to important events, personalities and places.

Wikipedia - Culture of Pakistan

Everything from Art and Architecture to Rugs and Sports. Lots of external links.

Asian Art

The online journal for the study and exhibition of the arts of Asia. Excellent links collection.

Wikipedia - Islam

Main article on Islam with a multitude of sub-topic links within Wikipedia as well as strong selection of external site links.

Islam Pakistan Way

Large informational and commercial site targeting Pakistani muslims.


The logo says it all: "Islam.com - A site worth of its name."

Compendium of Muslim Texts

Large online collections of the holy texts in original and translation from the University of Southern California.


Government and Politics

Governments on the WWW - Pakistan

Includes links to National Institutions and Government sites including President and most Ministries; Embassies in foreign countries, Political Parties, etc.

Listings of political sites available on the Internet sorted by country, with links to Parties, Organizations, Governments, Media and more from all around the world

.Foreign and International Law - Pakistan

From the Washburn University School of Law Library, links to country sites for Constitutional Law, Government and Politics, Law and Legislation, Legislative Bodies, etc.


Country Studies

Wikipedia - Pakistan

Excellent online encyclopedia article covering geography, history, military, culture, etc. with links to Internet resources

Pakistan - A Country Study

Exceptionally detailed presentation from the Library of Congress. Includes sections on: Geography, Society, Economy, Government and Politics, Very Detailed History and Historical Development, Contemporary Trends, etc.

DLIFLC - Pakistan in Perspective

Online familiarization course. Chapters include: Country Profile, Geography, History, Economy, Society, and Security; also has an End-ofCourse Test/Assessment.

Good resource site for information on Geography, People, Government, Economy, Communications, Transportation, Military, and Transnational Issues.

Full profiles provide an instant guide to history, politics and economic background of countries; also biographic sketches of leaders, essay on media, and historic timelines. They also include audio and video clips from the BBC archives.


Background Notes are updated/revised as they are received from regional bureaus and are added to the database of the Department of State web site. Categories include: Geography, People, History, Government, Political Conditions, Economy, Defense, Foreign Relations, U.S. Relations, and Travel/Business.

Latest developments in Peace and Security, Economic Development, Humanitarian Aid/Refugees, Environment/Shelter, Human Rights, Women/Children/Population, Health/Poverty/Food Security, Culture/Education.

WBG Activities in Pakistan, with additional related links.

"The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world?s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments. The goal is to help producers of goods and services, exporters, and importers conduct their business.

"Energy Information Administration Country Analysis Briefs - Pakistan

"The Energy Information Administration (EIA), created by Congress in 1977, the a statistical agency of the U.S. Department of Energy. We provide policy-independent data, forecasts, and analysis to promote sound policy making efficient markets and public understanding regarding energy and its interaction with the economy and environment."

World Health Organization - Pakistan

About WHO" "The World Health Organization, the United Nations specialized agency for health, was established on 7 April 1948. WHO's objective, as set out in its Constitution, is the attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health. Health is defined in WHO's Constitution as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity."

International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies - Pakistan

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies is the world's largest humanitarian organization, with 178 member National Societies.

Amnesty International - Pakistan

Amnesty International is a champion defender of human rights worldwide. Familiarity with a given country's human rights issues can provide a unique insight into many other aspects of its culture and politics.

Human Rights Watch - Pakistan

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.


Travel Guides


Lonely Planet Destinations - Pakistania

The people at the offbeat Lonely Planet website are not your typical travel guides -- they're very bright and know what they're talking about. Their goal is not to "sell the country" to travelers. Instead, they tell it how it is. Typical headings include: "Warnings" (in case travel is not recommended - the "why's"); Facts for the Traveler, When to Go, Events, Money and Costs, Attractions, Off the Beaten Track, Activities, History, Culture, Environment, Getting There and Away, Getting Around, and Further Reading and Related Weblinks.

Wikitravel - Pakistan

Wikitravel - by the people, for the people. Wikitravel is a project to create a free, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide.

Yahoo Travel Guide - Pakistan

Includes links to history, basics, transportation, dining, shopping and climate.

Google Directory - Pakistan

Includes links to cities, regions, transportation, dining, shopping and climate.